List of GRID-NET Reports

Burke L.; Selig E.; Spalding M.
Coral Reefs "At Risk in Southeast Asia"

Marine geology
sedimentation; coral reefs; land use; coastal development; South East Asia; South East Asia

Results released from the most detailed analysis of threats to Southeast Asia's coral reefs indicate that the

they face are higher than previously estimated, with as much as eighty-eight per cent of the region's reef

systems "severely threatened" by human activities. The main threats are overfishing, destructive fishing,

and sedimentation and pollution from land-based sources. So says a report published jointly by the World

Resources Institute (WRI), the United Nations Environment Program World Conservation Monitoring Center

(UNEP-WCMC), ICLARM -- The World Fish Center, and the International Coral Reef Action Network.

Southeast Asia is home to nearly 100,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, or nearly 34 percent of the world's

total, and 600 of the world's 800 reef-building coral species. According to the report, it is "not unusual to find a

greater variety of species around a single island in this region than can be found on all the coral reefs in the

Caribbean." The report estimates that the sustainable value of the region's reef fisheries is $2.4 billion

annually; if "ecosystem services" like tourism and shoreline protection are included, the figure is greater.

However, says the report, over 90 percent of the coral reefs in Cambodia, Singapore, Taiwan, the Philippines,

Vietnam, China, and the Spratly Islands are threatened. Over 85 percent of the reefs of Malaysia and

Indonesia are threatened. Indonesia and the Philippines hold 77 percent of the region's coral reefs and nearly

80% of all the threatened reefs. The report -- a collaboration between 35 scientists from across the region, as

well as from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia -- concludes that overfishing is the most

pervasive threat. About 64 percent of Shoutheast Asia's reefs are threatened by oversishing, with Cambodia,

Japan, and the Philippines exceeding 70 percent. Destructive fishing practices, such as the use of poison and

dynamites, threaten an estimated 56 percent of the region's reef systems. In addition, sedimentation and

pollution associated with coastal development and changes in land use place 37 percent of the reefs at risk.

The report recommends the following: - Expansion of the protected areas network for coral reefs. Currently,

only 8 percent of the region's reefs are in marine protected areas. - Improvement of management of existing

marine protected areas, "which will require political and financial commitments from government, private

organizations, and the tourism industry." - Reduction of overfishing through improved management and the

development of alternative livelihoods for fishers. Decreased fishing effort would result in higher catches and

incomes for those who still choose to fish. - Regulation of international trade in live reef organisms. The

total value of the trade in live reef fish exceeds $1 billion annually, with Southeast Asia providing up to 85

percent of the fish in the aquarium trade and nearly all the live food fish.
Washington D.C. (USA) World Resources Institute, , 2002; Abstract; GRIDN

Baird R.C.; Eppi R.E.
Building Global Capacity in Coastal Resource Management, the Emerging Sea Grant Model

Marine geology
environment; marine environment; Coastal Resources; Sea Grant; United States; Honduras; Nicaragua; Korea
Maryland (USA) NOAA Research, , 2001; 7 pgs., 1 p. Bibl. Ref.; GRIDN

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